"Four Generations of Women in Musicology,"

by Dr. Pauline Alderman as published in the The Journal of the International Congress on Women in Music, June 1985, pp. 1-13.
A Presentation given at the Second International Congress on Women in Music, April 2,1982, at the University of Southern California.

It is nice to see you all and to have this little chance to talk about my favorite subject. I don't know that women in musicology is my favorite subject, except that everything about musicology is my favorite subject; and being a woman and having been through now half a century of musicology, naturally, it is very important to me.

A year or two ago, maybe three years ago, two other colleagues in musicology and I sat one solid afternoon trying to make up a good definition of musicology. We had all read most of the important music dictionaries on what they had to say about it. The dictionaries didn't agree, and we didn't agree. For instance, we couldn't agree if musicology was a science or not, and we couldn't agree about what limitations it should have and how it should be divided and catalogued, and so forth and so on. Then just last week somebody from this Congress asked me, "What do you mean by women in musicology? Are they just women composers?" And I said, "No, we were not probably as important as the women composers." So I decided I had better define my terms before I did anything else, notwithstanding that I am pretty sure that everybody here has his or her own idea of what musicology is.

The definition that I like is the one formulated by the American Musicological Society in 1955, as I think it takes in most of the essentials. It says, "A field of knowledge having as its object the investigation of the art of music as a physical, psychological, and aesthetic and cultural phenomenon." I think it is really very good. Musicologists, of course, are simply those who make this study, through research or writing about it or teaching, as their profession. The field has a number of subdivisions, the largest among them today being historical musicology. Almost all of those on the list2 I have given you were in historical musicology or ethnomusicology, which is its partner, and which, of course, deals with exotic music, non-western music, and folklore of every sort.

Among the many scholars who came to this country during the Hitler Regime, there came musicologists who entered the music departments of universities and conservatories. The performing musicians and the music educators whom they joined and they didn't always understand one another very well. I'm not going into this misunderstanding too much. It belongs to both sides, I think. The musicologists coming from Europe, having European ideas, were worried about being in a new country and about just what they could do and just what their place was, being over-anxious to show their professional standing. The music education and performing people were a little bit defensive about some things with which they were rather unaccustomed. So, the word got about that musicologists were essentially scientific and nonmusical, i.e., non-musicians. This is not true. I have known most of the ranking musicologists of my early life and many of the present day ones, and I have never found one who was not a music-lover. Some of them, a few, are limited to their specialty, but not many. Most of them are performers and many have actually reached the point where their performances are decently professional in character. Many of them are also concert artists, who do musicology along with it. However, people who stay in musicology, for whom it is more than just a dissertation, but rather a life-long thing, I have found to be sort of a musical race apart. We are more curious than the ordinary musician, who is busy just doing his own work, with little time to exercise that curiosity, supposing he really has it. They are usually versatile, more versatile, perhaps, than the average performing musician. And I have found--when I talked to Dr. [Robert] Stevenson's class on women in music the other day, they all laughed so heartily at this--they are all such romanticists. They like the strange, the unusual, the new, the old, the very new. They are real detectives, musical detectives. They are willing to try almost anything to find out the things that they want to find out. Also they usually become very much addicted to their subject, very, very much so.

There have always been musicologists. You go back to the ancient Greeks, the ancient Chinese, the ancient Hindus, and you find people tried to discover things about music and wrote about it. But the great age of musicology, as we know it today, has been from the mid-l9th century to the present time. There has been much discovered. There was much, much to discover. There was very much old music to read through, to find out about, to edit. Editing has been a very important part of any musicologist's work and this still goes on. There is a generation, which began not very long before I retired, of musicologists who work with performance practices, and more and more with instruments. Many modern devices have helped us: the photocopy machine, the tape recorder, and all sorts of things which have made it easy for us. I was delighted one time when I spoke with Dr. [Gustave] Reese about the fact that there was so much new to discover, and he said, "Yes, of course. It is a new discipline, a really new discipline. There are new things on every side, and every little bit that anybody discovers adds to the general field of knowledge, which is something that sometimes people fail to realize."

There have always been women musicologists, too, most of them either studying on their own or helping their men-folk. But along about the time that women began entering other professions, such as medicine and law, architecture, social work, and so on, they began stepping out and publishing for themselves. Actually, there have been about a hundred years of work by women musicologists and it has indeed been very, very good work. I started about a month ago to set down, first, all the women musicologists I already knew about and, to be sure, I found as many others as there was time for. I discovered that they set themselves rather neatly into four generations, and this is actually the main theme of my discussion today.

Generation I:
Generation I started in the late 19th century and lasted into the first quarter and even into the first half of the 20th century. The earliest born among any of these was Florence May, born in 1845. The three women that I have chosen, and there I can say with most assurance that they are the three best known and most productive, all had rather long lives.

Michel Brenet [1859-1918] was the first that I have listed here and she actually lived the shortest time--she lived to be 60 years old. I can't say too much about her. I mean, there is so much that should be said, yet actually a surprisingly small amount of biographical material is available about her. Everything that there is about her is in the Bibliothe'que Nationale in France. To begin with, she was born in Alsace-Lorraine and on her father's side, on the paternal side, they were all military officers for several generations. Her grandfather was a general, her great-grandfather was a general. Her father, who was killed in the War of 1870, was a high officer who eventually would have been a general, I'm sure, if he had lived past his 30th year or so.

By the way, all of this material I got from one place, an obituary in the Revue de Musicologie, the French musicology society's journal, a lovely obituary article whose author, L. de La Laurencie, had consulted with her family.

So her father's people were military and well-to-do, and her mother's people were medical, doctors and surgeons. Her grandfather, who brought her up after her father was killed, was head of a hospital and also a Professor of Philosophy. She must have learned from him, for she was educated entirely at home. She was a very careful researcher. Everything that she wrote, even things that have been surpassed since there has been more knowledge, is carefully documented. You can be absolutely assured that as much as was known during her time was right in her writings. I ran into her first, by the way, in looking up lute music; her work on early 16th century French lutenists is a classic, still referred to. In MGG7 there is one column in fine print, listing just her works, all sorts of works.

I found the lute book at the Bibliothe'que Nationale when I was doing research there. Then I found the book on the musicians of Sainte-Chappelle, that beautiful little chapel that was built by Charles the 9th. Her very first book was published just a hundred years ago and it is a history of the orchestra. And all sorts of biographies, many of them the first to be written in French. For example, her biography of Haydn [1909] is still consulted, and most of his later biographers have found something in it to quote. There was biography of Handel [1912], a biography of Gre'try [18841, and so on and so on.

When Brenet was 13, she had scarlet fever, which left her an invalid. She had been planning to be a concert pianist--she was a very brilliant pianist--but it left her with some sort of rheumatic trouble. So she was a semi-invalid the rest of her life and just gave herself over to doing research. She had access to manuscripts that, in her time, many people didn't have. This was through the grandfather who was a philosophy professor. Also, although nobody says so, I'm pretty sure she must have had access to publishers, because she had publishers all over the place. And I am sure if she found one that needed to be paid for publication, she probably had the money to do it. Well, this is why I call her the mother of us all.

La Laurencie said two other things about her that I thought were very interesting. He said that in spite of her constant invalidism, she never let it hamper her and she never spoke of it, never complained. Everyone respected her for this. And he also said that she came to the musicology meetings after the society [The Socie'tey Francaise de Musicologie] was formed and she never let a mistake of anybody's go by. But she did it gently, politely. Then actually I took a little time off and read some of the back numbers of Revue de Musicologie when she had been, where she had sometimes commented, sometimes written. She deserves to be spoken of as much as I have because she was actually about the first of a whole group of brilliant French women.

Now, the next one is an American, Frances Densmore. She was an Oberlin graduate, a good pianist, and a piano teacher and organist. But in 1893 she fell in with some ethnologists, became interested in Indian music, and studied to the point that in 1907 she was appointed to the American Bureau of Ethnology. Now, if you, by any chance, happen to look her up in The New Grove, all you will find that they call her an ethnologist, which, of course, is primarily a person interested in tribal and ethnic music of various sorts. But she approached it from the musical point of view. Alice Fletcher, her friend who got her interested in this, was an ethnologist and not a musician; she had to call upon musicians to take down the music. But Densmore was a solid musician; she had studied counterpoint and harmony and she knew scales and modes. She was really able to handle Indian music in a musical fashion, and more or less to be the guide of a whole group of younger ethnomusicologists who grew up after her. So it seems to me that she belongs in this list.

Then comes Florence May. Her father was a music educator and head of many music education committees in Great Britain. Florence was born in 1845. She was a prodigy. Her father had her trained carefully in piano and sent her when she was a teenager to Germany to study with Clara Schumann. Of course, she had technical problems and--much to my surprise, as I learned in the book--Brahms had been especially interested in piano technique. He had a great many ideas about correcting difficulties, and Clara Schumann persuaded him to take this girl as his student. So she studied piano with him for over a year. Then she went back to England and became a specialist in Brahms and in playing Brahms' piano music. She wrote a book in 1905, which has been published in two or three editions since. It was so carefully done, probably because of her father's knowledge of how to write. It is beautifully written and very, very carefully documented. That is all she did, but in a musicological way, it's enough, because of its quality and character, to make her, I think, an important member of this group.

There probably were others, but these certainly are the few who belong with any musicologists, man or woman, in 1980 or 1905.

Generation II:
Now I come to Generation II. This group is my group, the one I belong to. I have known personally nearly all the women I have listed here. It is going to be a temptation to talk about them too long, but I do have my eyes on the clock. I want to mention two or three of them just in passing. I know you know all about me and I don't need to talk about myself even for a moment. If I did, it would take too long, anyhow. Regarding the next two women, I will give you exactly the names of their dissertations.

Helen Bush wrote "The Emergence Chordal Concept in the Polyphonic Period."11 The title of this one and of the next one will give you a clue as to what we were thinking about. At that time, in the 1930s, everybody spoke of the 15th and 16th centuries as the polyphonic period. They didn't seem to know that there was instrumental music, no one knew until very shortly before I began studying in France, that there was any homophonic music written or even any homophonic conceptions. They had begun to be interested harmonically in some of the things they found in polyphonic music, in the 1920s and 30s. Of course, at that time the United States was slower than Europe, and the west coast was a lot slower than the east. But, nevertheless, this was the way it was.

Ruth Hannas, whom I knew very well personally, wrote also on "The Evolution of Harmonic Consciousness: A Study in Pre-l8th Century Techniques."12 I can't help quoting a young man who came to me to decide upon a dissertation, not too many years ago, who said that Bach was the be-all and end-all of his life. I said, "What do you know of the pre-Bach composers?" and he said, "I know nothing of that period." That's taking about a thousand years and dumping it all together. Well, Ruth Hannas, who took the first doctorate (1934) I think at Eastman, wrote on this and she found several old theory books, one by a man named Cerone [Domenico Pietro] in the Eastman Library which nobody had ever worked with. A very, very intelligent woman, a fine linguist, a great student of Latin and of Greek, and a brilliant pianist, incidentally. I can't resist telling you this much about her: She became interested finally in a subject which everybody was curious about and nobody agreed on, namely musica reservata of the 15th and 16th centuries. She had her own theories about it and even wrote some articles about it which nobody agreed with, by the way.

Another thing that she did, of course, was to seek out all the settings of and all the translations of the lyrics of Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire. She was in New York when she gave a paper on this at the national meeting of the American Musicological Society and telephoned me here because she knew I knew the Schoenbergs. She wanted me to ask Mrs. Schoenberg whether he [Arnold Schoenberg] had gotten the lyrics in German translation or in the original French. So I did. Mrs. Schoenberg said he got it on a piece of typing paper in the German translation. There is much more that I could tell you about her, but there's no real time to do so.

Then there is Annaliesa Landou whom I'm sure some of you know. She is still around and just has written--after having retired from the Jewish Center in Hollywood, which she made quite famous--a book on the German Lied, having wanted all of her life to write it.

Isabel Pope [b. 1901] also is a very interesting woman. She earned her Ph.D. from Radcliffe College in Romance Philology, but she got together with Helen Hewitt [1900-1977] when Helen was doing her edition of the Odhecaton of Petrucci.13 Helen had this problem: The names of the tunes were in the edition, but the words were not there. The edition was laid out mostly in three parts, and although there were no words under any of the parts, Hewitt recognized, after some of her studies, that these were well-known songs. But, of course, they were mostly in the French of the 1500s, a few were in Italian and the first one was in Latin. While Hewitt was a good French student, she did not know this 16th century French well enough to do anything about it. Having found the texts in a chansonnier with just the tune, she decided to underlay these texts in the music, although they were not in this particular edition. This was the job, one she never could have done without the help of someone who knew a great deal about the language. (She would have told you this, herself.) So she found Isabel Pope. Pope's married name was Conant and she became the wife of the President of Harvard College for a while. She was a very dignified, very charming and highly cultivated woman.

Helen Hewitt had gotten her Ph.D. at Harvard quite early, the first woman to get it in musicology there. When I was considering what I should do about getting a degree in musicology, I asked a man what I should do. This man had gotten his degree from Harvard, so I asked him if he thought that might be a good place for me to do it, and he said, "You'll never make it. They will never, never, ever give a degree to a woman. Don't even consider it. You will just be wasting your time." Well, I thought he knew what he was talking about, and I made other plans. Just before I started off for Europe, Helen Hewitt got her degree from Radcliffe and then my friend was kind enough to say, "Well, if she could do it, you could do it, too." But I had made other plans by that time. In fact, I'm rather glad that I didn't do it.

Now, that leads me back to Helen Hewitt. She got an A.B. from Vassar in mathematics. She was, by the way, a very fine concert organist. Her B.M. was from Eastman in organ, her M.A. from Union Theological Seminary in sacred music M and her Ph.D. in Musicology at Radcliffe. Every single degree, she told me herself, was on a fellowship or scholarship of some sort. She really didn't do any teaching or any work in musicology until after her degree in musicology.

The translations of the texts and the transcription of the Odhecaton-one of the most important works in musicology, one of the best works ever done--make an interesting story. Hewitt had gotten a fellowship for that to go and work with [Heinrich] Besseler at Heidelberg University. This was in 1948, and she was there on a Guggenheim Fellowship, getting ready to do the second book on the Odhecaton. We lived there near one another. Moreover, I had a letter of introduction from the same person who told me I would never make it at Harvard and 50 we saw one another very often. We used to sit over instant coffee, which was all there was to be had in France in 1948, and she used to talk about how she became "Mrs. Petrucci," the printer of the Odhecaton, and I became "Mrs. Antonine Boesset," the musician whose work I transcribed. Anyhow, [the Odhecaton] was full of problems and she decided when she first found it and transcribed it that the only thing to do was to go to Besseler and work with him. She went all over Europe finding the sources of the tunes, the best version of each of the tunes, and then working them through. It is a marvelous piece of work. She did not know a great deal about performance literature outside the organ, which she knew thoroughly. But she was as sharp a person historically and as careful in her work as anyone I've ever seen, man or woman. She had a very fine musical sensibility, and, of course, absolute pitch. A very, very talented musician.

The other two that I would like to mention would be Yvonne Rokseth [1890-1948] and Genevieve Thibault [1902-1975]. They seem to belong together, more or less. Both studied, as did many other people here, with Andre Pirro, the very great teacher of musicology at the Sorbonne, and they both got their degrees from there. Rokseth was very particularly noted, not only as the organizer of the music in the great Bibliotheque Nationale, but also as the transcriber and editor of three great polyphonic works of the sort nobody had ever really edited before. Those were the 13th century polyphonic motets. Another scholar had done some work on them before, but she had made the complete edition of them. Rokseth died in 1948 of a heart attack, probably brought on by her problems during World War II, because she worked with the Underground during World War II, and was decorated by the French government for having done that.

As for Genevie've Thibault, better known as Madame Chambure, she was perhaps the greatest of all women in musicology because she worked in so many fields--in publishing, in transcribing, in performing, in organizing. Together with all this, she was blessed with a great fortune, and she knew just how to spend it! She spent it all on musicology and young musicologists. She edited probably one of the most important Journals on Renaissance music, AnnalesMusicologiques, and she opened her house and her collection of manuscripts-of which she had great numbers--to musicians who needed them. She financed the publication of works by young musicians. She did everything that should have been done in musicology with her fortune. She kept writing and lecturing herself. She died in 1975.

Before I leave Generation II, I want to mention one of the other women there, Solange Corgin [1903-1973], another one of these wonderful French women. Madame Corbin worked exclusively as a medievalist, both with liturgical music and a little bit with trouveres and troubadours and the secular music of the Middle Ages. One of our doctoral candidates here was at Harvard the year she lectured there and he said that she was the most learned lecturer, and at the same time the most charming woman that he had met--a wonderful person. She died in the summer right after she had lectured at Harvard, in her early 70s.

Generation III.
I will leave Generation III just as I have left it here on the handout. There was one dissertation that I missed out on here and that was Ruth Steiner [b. 1931]. She may be known to any of you here who are members of the Catholic Church. I had the pleasure of knowing her quite well, because I taught at Catholic University, where she teaches. She is the most careful, and at the same time most inspired, musicologist among the younger women. She works very hard with her doctoral candidates. She had actually as an undergraduate worked with Gustave Reese and a number of other people, before marrying a scientist who is settled in Washington, D.C. There she finished her doctorate and became head of the musicology department.

Louise Cuyler [b. 1908] is known to everybody who has been in the AMS for any length of time, because for years she was the Secretary. She did work on another important composer who had been paid little attention. She worked almost entirely with the Choral is Constantinus, Part III of Heinrich Isaac and she followed it by the book on the Emperor Maximilian who had employed Isaac for so long.

Generation IV:
Now moving quickly to Generation IV, the younger generation. Instead of trying to talk about 20 or 30, many of whom I don't really know, I would like to say a few words in closing about the young musicologists around here, because, I assure you, regionally we have a rich group of young women. Some of them have come to us from eastern universities and some of them took their doctorates here at USC under my own guidance, I am proud to say, and some of them at UCLA. I want to mention particularly two women in our Department here, Charlotte Crocket who has just finished an edition of the Berlin Flute Sonatas of ~uantz15, who has a contract for publication, and Charlotte Erwin who took her degree at Yale, working on the music of Richard Strauss, who recently had an article in The Musical Quarterly concerning one of Strauss' operas. I would like to mention Eleanor Russell, who writes mostly on Spanish music--on the villancico--who is constantly publishing and who teaches at [California State University] Northridge is a very busy musicologist who goes to Spain practically every summer and works on them. Williametta Spencer worked with the French composer Andre Traplay and has also published some of his work. And Joan Milliman, who is here today, did a very thoughtful, a very careful study of Britten's treatment of sleep in Death in Venice. A number of our young women are heads of music history departments or music departments. Dolores M. Hsu is at U Santa Barbara and Olga Termini at LA State is head of her department there very successfully. And there are two or three more.

I am completely out of time. I want to say just one more thing. In the International List of Dissertations in Musicology16 put out by AMS and the Music Educators' Association, the publisher has said that there have been 4,464 dissertations in musicology, in 1971. Of these, 640 are by women. That is about a sixth. Now, I could go into the reasons why, but I'm out of time. But I hope I have proved today that our contribution has by no means been small. I think we can say we've been among the best. Thank you very much. I could go on forever, but you would get tired.

[Editor's note: After the talk, she was asked, "Why are there fewer women writing dissertations in musicology?" She answered: "I don't know exactly, but there is one reason, I think. As you know, there was a big slump in the women's movement and in women's interest in the professions right after World War II. We felt it at the university very much. Let me tell you one story. We had a Women's Faculty Club in those days; nowadays we are grouped together. We had a committee to try to find out why there weren't any more women in important positions in the university. We had a women who was a great researcher, who could do practically anything she wanted to, as chairman, and she was sure there was a lot of political business that would not be good. She came back with her tail I between her legs, as it were, because when she had looked at the applications, nobody had applied. No applications. You know this went on for quite a long time, about 10 years. This, I think, is the only reason I can unearth for certain why there aren't any more. Otherwise, I would say that we are still timid. It is a tremendous job, and this possibly has something to do with it."]

1. Transcribed and edited by Jeannie Pool, with the assistance of Beverly Simmons.
2. Dr. Alderman passed out a list of women musicologists, which is published as part of this article.
3. Originally her name was Marie Bobillier.
4. Biographical entries appear in Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 6th ed. Completely revised by Nicolas Slonimsky. New York G. Schirmer, 198, page 228 and vol. III, p. 258 of Grove (1980). Also MGG 1952 vol. 2 p. 273-274.
5. Revue de Musicologie i/4 (1919), p. 19.
6. Notes sur 'histoire du luth en France, (Paris, 1899).
7. Annette Dieudonne', "Michel Brenet" Die Musikin Geschichte und Gegenwart. Allgemeine Enzyklopadie der Musik. Edited by Friedrich Blume. Kassel u. Basel, Barenreiter Verlag, 1949-1967, v. 2, 273-274.
8. Les Musiciens de Ia Sainte-Chapelle du Palais: documents inedits, recueillis et annotes Michel Brent (Paris, 1910).
9. Histoire de la symphonie a orchestre: depuis ses origines jusqua Beethoven inclusivement. (Paris, 1882)
10. William Rhodes, "Frances Densmore." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Edited by Stanley Sadie London: Macmillan Publishers, 1980 vol .5, p. 375.
11. Helen Bush, "The Emergence of the Chordal Concept in the Polyphonic Period."
12. Ruth Hannas, "The Evolution of Harmonic Consciousness: A Study in Pre-l8th Century Techniques."
13. Harmonice Musices Odhecaton Cambridge, Mass., 1942, rev. 2/1946)
14. The Emperor Maximilian I and Music (London, 1973).
15. Berlin Flute Sonatas, vol.1 of Johann Joachim Quantz, prepared by Charlotte Crocket with Dr. Gilbert Blount, to be published in 1985 by A-R Editions, Madison, Wisconsin.
16. Adkins, Cecil. Doctoral Dissertations in Musicology. 5th Edition, Philadelphia, PA: American Musicological Society, 1971.

by Dr. Pauline Alderman

Within the past century, a steady flow of publications by women in the field of Musicology and Ethnomusicology has been going on. Its authors--researchers, librarians, teachers, can be divided, surprisingly neatly, into four generations. Below are listed the names of representative members of each group as discussed in my paper.

MICHELE BRENET: (Marie Bobillier) 1858-1918. "The mother of us all". The best discussion of her publications that I have found and the most complete list of her published works are in the German music dictionary, Die Musike in Geschichte und Gegenwart. The list occupies an entire column of fine print. Biographical detail there is largely taken from an obituary in a 1919 number of La Revue de Musicologie. Her first publication in 1882 was a history of the Symphony Orchestra ThTT~Thla st was a Dictionary of Music, published after her death in 1926, and translated into Spanish in 1946. There is a copy of this last in the UCLA library. Her books consist of biographies of composers whose lives range in date from the 13th century to the 19th. The French Lutenists in the 16th Century is still a standard reference source.
FRANCES DENSMORE: (1867-1957). Ethnomusicologist; Graduate of Oberlin Conservatory. Church organist and piano teacher, she began the study of American Indian Music in 1893. In 1907 she was appointed "Collaborator to the United States Government bureau of Ethnology," a position she held for more than thirty years. She collected, mostly through phonograph recordings, and transcribed over 2,000 songs from circa 20 Indian tribes. These have been published by the government and by the Southwest Museum of Los Angeles, California. Most of the publications are in the University of Southern California Doheny Library.
FLORENCE MAY: (1845-1923). British concert pianist. Pupil of Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms. In 1905 she published a two-volume biography of Brahms, one of the earliest and most reliable secondary sources, noted for its completeness and careful writing and also its personal reminiscences of the I composer and his teaching.


The earliest born of this group was Maude Karpeles, collector and publisher of English folk music (1885-1973). The latest was Genevieve Thibault, 1902. Since some of us are still living, I have not given individual dates. For these, consult music dictionaries. M.G.G., the new Groves and Baker are the most reliable.
PAULINE ALDERMAN: A.B. Reed College; major, English literature; minors, German literature and European History. M.A. University of Washington, Music Composition. Ph.D. University of Southern California, Music. Dissertation, "Antoine Boesset and the Air der Cour." Minors, Composition and Comparative Literature. Studied at the Institute of Music Art, New York City, 1923-24, University of Edinburgh, 1938, and the University of Strasbourg, 1939. Also, Musical Analysis, Arnold Schoenberg, 1934-35; Counterpoint, Percy Goetschius; Composition, Carolyn Aichin, George McKay, Sir Donald Tovey and Ernst Toch; Piano, AIf Klingenberg and Abby Whiteside. First Chairman of Department of Musicology, 1951-1960.
HELEN BUSH: Dissertation, Cornell University. The Emergence of the Into Chord Concept in the Polyphonic Period, 1930s.
RUTH HEWITT: Ph.D. Eastman, 1934. Director of Music Section, W.P.A., New York, n.d. Articles in Musical Quarterly, papers at National Meetings American Musicological Society, 17th Century Music Theory, Musica Reservata and sources for texts of Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire.
MAUD KARPELES: Folklorist, Ethnomusicologist. Joined Cecil Sharp in collecting English tunes in the folk music of the Appalachians, 1916 to 1921. She collected 1612 tunes, published in two volumes of songs. Author of the text, Introduction to English Folk Song, and Cecil Sharp: A Biography. Later associated with Vaughn Williams as advisor to the English folk song society. Organized the International Folk Music Council of which she was following the presidencies of Vaughn Williams and Zoltan Kodaly.
ANNALIESA LANDAU: Assistant to Alfred Einstein in his eleventh edition of Riemann's Musik Lexicon. Author of The German Lied, 1979. As music director of the Jewish Center in Hollywood, she made it one of the centers of concert life in the Los Angeles area.
JEANNE MARIX: Librarian, French National Conservatory. Concert pianist, who later studied Musicology with Pirro at the Sorbonne. Became librarian at the National Conservatory early in the 1930s. Published an edition of Burgundian Composers at the Court of Philipe the Good. (Paris, Lyre L'Oisseau, 1938). An important pioneering publication. Further studies in this field were cut short by her early death in 1939.
ISABEL POPE: Ph.D. Radcliffe, 1935 in Romance Philology. Worked first as tutor and translator of Spanish and French texts in early Renaissance vocal works. Became widely known as the editor of the texts for Helen Hewitt's Odhecator. Translated for the Norton Music history series, Salazar's La Musica Moderna.. Became interested in Spanish sources for music in Colonia, Mexico, Italy and France in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Is still working on a translation and edition of IMC 87, an important source of late 15th century music at the court of Aragon in Naples.
YVONNE ROKSETH: Organist. Musicologist par excellence. Studied Composition with D'Indy and Roussel, Musicology with Pirro. Doctor of Letters, 1933 with a dissertation on early organ music. Catalogued autographs at the Conservatory Library. Organized the music department at the bibliotheque Nationale, 1934-37, and organized concerts of early music there. Became director of musicology at the University of Strasbourg in 1937. Published Polyphonies du XIII Siecle de Ia Faculte du Medecine de Montpelier in three volumes, 1935-1939. Died in 1948 at the height of her career.
MARION SCOTT: English. Violinist, journalist, musicologist. Graduate of the Royal College of Music. Specialized on Haydn string quartets of which she made a catalogue published in Music and Letters, British Musicological Journal which she edited through the late 1920s and 1930s. In 1911, with Gertrude Eaton she organized The Society of Women Musicians.
GENEVIEVE THIBAULT: (The Comtesse de Hubert Chambure), another three star musicologist. Pianist and organist. Musicologist and publisher. Studied organ and fugue with Nadia Boulanger, 1917-23. Musicology with Andre Pirro at the Sorbonne. Collected fine library of chansonniers and other early music manuscripts and editions which she opened to scholars. Organized the Societe de Musique d'Autrefois for the performance of early music on original instruments and lectured at the Sorbonne. Founded Annales Musicologues, a journal of early music. Books include, Poets and Musicians of the 15th Century, Three Chansonniers of the 15th Century (with Y. Rokseth), Airs de Courand Chansons au Luth (with Maire La Laurencie).

Here, choosing from thirty or so names listed in New Groves, Baker and other music dictionaries, I have chosen ten undisputed leaders in musicology today. The oldest of them, still active, were born in this century in the years preceding World War I; the youngest, just before World War II.
RITA BENTON: Pianist, graduate of Juilliard, Ph.D. in Musicology, Iowa,1961. Music Librarian, University of Iowa and Associate Professor of Musicology. Editor of Fontes Artis Musicae. Works include Ignaz Pleyel; a thematic catalogue of his music. Translator of Fritz Noskes' French Song from Berlioz to Dupare. For some years, Secretary of the American Musicological Society.
NANIE BRIDGMAN: Another Pirro-trained musicologist and librarian. She studied singing at the Conservatoire and art subjects at the Sorbonne and earned a diploma in the higher subjects (Etudes Superieor, for which she prepared with Rokseth at Strasbourg and a diploma in Serbo-Croat. In 1945, she took the position at the Bibliotheque Nationale vacated by Rokseth's son-in-law, Guillaume de Van. Her interests are in the 14th, 15th, and 16th century music in France and Italy. She has edited a volume of R.I.S.M. entitled, The Polyphonic Manuscripts of the 15th and 16th Centuries and many periodical and music dictionary articles. At present, retired from the library, she is preparing a complete edition of the works of Thomas Crequillon.
SUZANNE CLERX: Professor of Music, Liege University. Founder with Paul Collaer of the Annual International Congress of Ethnomusicology, author of The Baroque in Music and 22 articles in scholarly periodicals and sections of longer works, her interests being Instrumental music of the Middle Ages, Baroque and Classical periods, and all Belgian Music.
SOLANGE CORBIN: Pianist, Musicologist. Doctorate at the Sorbonne in 1957 with dissertations on the neumatic notations of French manuscripts and the Liturgical Deposition of Christ on Good Friday. Director of Research at the Centre Nationale de Ia Centre Scientifique, 1950-59. Professor of Musicologie at the University of Poitiers, 1961-70. Lectured in England, Poland and the U.S.A. from 1970 to 1973 when she died just after a term of lecturing at Harvard. New Groves gives a column to her publications, most of them in the field of Medieval liturgical music and neumatic notation, but some in medieval aertrude secular music.
LOUISE CUYLER: Violinist and violist. M.M. in Composition and Theory, Eastman, 1933. Ph.D. Eastman, 1948. Dissertation: Edition of the Choral is Studied: Constantinus Book III of Heinrich Isaac (University of Michigan Press), followed by The Emperor Maximilian I and Music (London, 1973) and other books and monographs. Director of the Department of Musicology, University Michigan, 1957-1972. Retired, 1972. Secretary of A.M.S. for some years.
IMOGENE HORSLEY: A.B. University of Washington; M.A. Stanford; Ph.D. Radcliffe, 1952; Dissertation, The Variation Before 1580. Taught at Carleton College, 1954-69. Professor at Stanford, 1969-82. Deceased, 1982. Interests: Theory and Performance Practices, with specialization in Improvisation and Ornamentation. Book: Fugue: History and Practice, 1966. Articles in J.A.M.S.and Acta Musicologica. Article in New Grove on "Improvisation I."
SYLVIA KENNEY: Musicologist. AB. Wellesley; B.M., MA., Ph.D. Yale, 1955. Research in Brussels, 1950-51. Her interest was in 15th century English music and her chief publication, The Collected Works of Walter Fry. She taught at Wells College, 1952-54, Bryn Mawr, 1957-63, U.C. Santa Barbara, 1965-66 and at Smith College from 1966 until her death in 1969. New Grove gives a list of six articles in periodicals and Festschrifts.
JANET KNAPP: Organist, Musicologist. BA., M.A. Oberlin; Ph.D. Yale, 1961. Taught at Yale, 1958-63, Boston University, 1963-66, Smith 1968-71, Vassar, Mellon Professor, 1971--. Her speciality, the Medieval Conductus. Her chief publication to date, Thirty-five Conductus for two and three voices, a performance edition. She was president of the A.M.S. in 1975-76.
DIKA NEWLIN: Composer, Musicologist, Pianist. Began her life as a child prodigy pianist and composer. Studied with Arnold Schoenberg at U.C.L.A. from the ages of 14 to 17. A.B. Michigan State, Composition. Ph.D. Columbia University, 1954. Studied with Schnabel, Serkin and Sessions. Chief books, Bruckner, Mahler, and Schoenberg, The Works of Arnold Schoenberg, Arnold Schoenberg Remembered, 1975. Many articles in music periodicals are centered around Schoenberg, his associates and followers.
RUTH STEINER: Studied under Bukofzer at UC. Berkeley. Ph.D. Catholic Ion. University, 196 . Professor, Catholic University of America. Interests include teaching and publications centered around medieval liturgical music.

The younger generation. Their name is legion. My lecture will close with the introduction of some younger local musicologists of great promise.